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Tartars is an umbrella term for different Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar" that have spread across many parts of Russia. The original Tartars are the Kazanian Tartars. The Republic of Tatarstan is a Russian republic located in Eastern Europe—its capital city being Kazan. Crimean Tartars and Siberian Tartars speak slightly different versions of the Tartar language.
Initially, the ethnonym Tartar possibly referred to the Tartar confederation. This confederation was eventually incorporated into the Mongol Empire when Genghis Khan unified the various steppe tribes.
The etymology of Tartar. The word derives from Turkish and Farsi where tätar means "mounted messenger".
There is no evidence on Google Maps of a village close to Alexandropol (now called Gyumri) with the name Karadagh. The name is Turkish and means Black Mountain. It is possible that the village was renamed or merged into Gyumri.
The area known as Arasbaran which stretches from the Qusha Dagh massif, south of Ahar, to the Aras River in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran is also known as Karadagh. It seems unlikely that Gurdjieff is referring to that in the text, but it is worth noting.
The name Resnik means "butcher." Contrast this with the other doctor Keeltchevsky whose name means "to germinate" (and hence thrive). There are two kinds of doctors.
The name Keeltchevsky means to germinate (and hence grow, thrive). Contrast this with the other doctor, Resnik whose name means butcher. There are two kinds of doctors.